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12 Common Types Of AGV Navigation Guidance Methods(2)

Nov. 19, 2021



AGV navigation guidance is the process of AGV controlling the speed and steering angle according to the path offset, so as to ensure that the AGV travels precisely to the position and heading of the target point. This article introduces 12 types of AGV navigation guidance methods. Read on for more information.


7. Magnetic stripe navigation

Magnetic stripe navigation is considered a very mature technology, mainly through the measurement of the magnetic field signal on the path to obtaining the vehicle itself relative to the target tracking path between the position deviation, so as to achieve the control and navigation of the vehicle. Magnetic stripe navigation has high measurement accuracy and good repeatability, magnetic navigation is not easily affected by light changes, etc. During operation, the magnetic sensing system has high reliability and robustness. Once the magnetic stripe is laid out, the maintenance cost is very low, the service life is long, and it is easier to add and change the path.

Advantages of magnetic stripe navigation: Simple on-site construction. Low cost, mature and reliable technology. No interference for sound and light, the obviousness of AGV operation line. Line secondary change is easy, low change cost, short change cycle. Low technical requirements for construction personnel

Disadvantages of magnetic stripe navigation: magnetic stripe is easy to break; the overall aesthetics are reduced due to the ground laying of the magnetic stripe. Magnetic stripe can not be coherent, because AGV turning will crush the magnetic stripe, part of the magnetic stripe will be truncated and not paved. Magnetic stripe will attract metal substances, leading to AGV equipment failure, etc. Other sensors are needed to achieve the positioning site function.


8. Electromagnetic navigation

Electromagnetic navigation is one of the more traditional navigation methods, is still being used, it is in the AGV's driving path buried metal wire, and in the metal wire loaded guide frequency, through the identification of the guide frequency to achieve the AGV navigation function. This navigation technology is similar to magnetic stripe navigation, due to the shortcomings of this navigation technology such as insufficient beauty and difficult path change, this technical solution is gradually abandoned by AGV manufacturers, but specific occasions are also more suitable for this navigation technology, specifically according to the AGV working environment requirements. For example, high-temperature environment, strict line straightness requirements and other requirements.

The advantages of electromagnetic navigation: low cost, mature and reliable technology. Good stealth and aesthetics of navigation, that is to say, the magnetic nails are pre-buried and perforated under the ground, and there are no other navigation aids above the ground in the whole factory. Magnetic nail strong anti-interference, strong resistance to wear and tear, acid and alkali, oil and other effects. Use outdoor, indoor, etc.

Disadvantages of electromagnetic navigation: additional equipment is needed to generate electromagnetic signals. Need other sensors to achieve site positioning function. AGV electromagnetic navigation line once laid, the subsequent modification of the line must be executed secondary operations, compared to laser navigation technology, electromagnetic navigation for the later modification of the line to increase the cost and construction time. AGV magnetic nail navigation construction will be certain destruction of the ground function, that is, in the ground groove, and then backfill, the construction technology requirements are strict, in order to restore the original ground aesthetic requirements.


9. Hybrid navigation

Hybrid navigation is a collection of multiple navigation methods that were created in response to changes in the field environment. Due to changes in the site environment, a certain type of navigation is temporarily unable to meet the requirements and then switches to another type of navigation to continue to meet the continuous operation of the AGV.

10. Optical navigation

Optical navigation actually uses industrial cameras to identify. The navigation is divided into ribbon tracking navigation, two-dimensional code recognition and other functions.


11. Two-dimensional code guidance

QR code guidance method is through the discrete laying of QR code, through the AGV vehicle camera scanning resolution QR code to obtain real-time coordinates. The QR code guidance method is also the most common AGV guidance method on the market. The composite navigation form of QR code guidance + inertial navigation is also widely used, and Amazon's KIVA robot is moving autonomously through this navigation method. This way is relatively flexible, laying and changing the path is also relatively convenient, the disadvantage is that the QR code is easy to wear, needs regular maintenance.

Applicable scenario: warehouse with good environment


12. Inertial navigation

Inertial navigation is installed on the AGV gyroscope, the use of gyroscope can obtain the three-axis angular velocity and acceleration of the AGV, through the integral operation of the AGV navigation and positioning, inertial navigation advantage is low cost, high accuracy in a short period of time, but the disadvantages of this navigation method is also particularly obvious, gyroscope itself with the growth of time, the error will accumulate and increase, until the loss of position, can be called "absolutely hard". So that inertial navigation is usually used as an aid to other navigation methods. As mentioned above, the QR code guidance + inertial navigation approach is to use inertial navigation in the blind spot between two QR codes and recalibrate the position when passing through the QR code.


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