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12 Common Types Of AGV Navigation Guidance Methods(1)

Nov. 05, 2021


AGV navigation guidance is the process of AGV controlling the speed and steering angle according to the path offset, so as to ensure that the AGV travels precisely to the position and heading of the target point. This article introduces 12 types of AGV navigation guidance methods. Read on for more information.


1. Magnetic peg navigation

The navigation method is still through the magnetic navigation sensor to detect the magnetic signal of the magnetic peg to find the travel path, but the original magnetic strip navigation when the magnetic strip continuous induction into intermittent induction, so the distance between the magnetic pegs can not be too large, and between the two magnetic pegs AGV in a state of distance measurement, in this state need to encoder measurement of the distance traveled. Secondly, the control module used for magnetic peg navigation is the same as the control module for magnetic stripe navigation.

Advantages of magnetic nail navigation: low cost, mature and reliable technology. Good stealth and aesthetics of navigation, that is to say, the magnetic nail pre-buried perforated and buried under the ground, the entire factory floor above no other navigation aids. Magnetic nail strong anti-interference, strong resistance to wear and tear, resistance to acid and alkali, oil, and other effects. Use outdoor, indoor, rain, etc.

Disadvantages of magnetic nail navigation: AGV navigation ground needs to meet the technical requirements, that is, AGV navigation route within the presence of other magnetic substances; AGV navigation line can not have demagnetization, anti-magnetic substances, affecting the magnetic AGV magnetic nail. AGV magnetic nail navigation line once laid, the subsequent modification of the line must be executed secondary operations, compared to laser navigation technology, magnetic nail navigation for the later modification of the line to increase costs and construction time. Time. AGV magnetic nail navigation construction will be certain destruction of the ground function, that is, in the ground to open the hole, and then backfill, the construction technology requirements are strict, in order to restore the original ground aesthetic requirements.



2. Laser navigation

Laser navigation is to install a laser reflection plate around the driving path of AGV. AGV determines its current position and direction by emitting a laser beam and collecting the laser beam reflected by the reflection plate at the same time and realizing the navigation of AGV through continuous triangular geometry operation.

Advantages of laser navigation technology: AGV positioning is precise. No other positioning facilities on the ground can be flexible driving paths, can be suitable for a variety of field environments, is currently many domestic and foreign AGV manufacturers give priority to the use of advanced navigation methods.

Laser navigation technology disadvantages: high cost, relatively harsh environmental requirements (external light, ground requirements, visibility requirements, etc.). The price of laser navigation equipment is high. Laser navigation equipment is suitable for unobstructed environments. High cost of reflectors.

At present, laser navigation technology has become the mainstream solution for domestic and foreign AGV manufacturers, due to its high positioning accuracy, flexible line changes, mature navigation technology, and other factors that have led to the popularity of laser navigation.


3. Distance measurement and navigation

This navigation technology is mainly applied to the laser two-bit scanner to scan and measure its surroundings, to obtain measurement data, and then combined with navigation algorithms to achieve AGV navigation. The navigation sensor is usually realized by using a safety laser scanner with a safety function because the safety laser scanner can realize the safety function and navigation measurement function at the same time. AGVs with range-based navigation technology can enter the interior of containers for automatic pickup and delivery.


4. Contour navigation

Contour navigation is currently the most advanced navigation technology for AGVs. This technology uses 2D laser scanners to measure and learn the site environment, and draw the navigation environment, then perform more or less measurement and learning, and correct the map to realize the contour navigation function. Using the natural environment (walls, columns and other fixed objects) for free-ranging navigation updates the position based on the environmental measurements. Advantages of contour navigation: no reflectors or other artificial landmarks required; reduced installation costs; reduced maintenance; an alternative to laser navigation


5. SLAM laser navigation (natural navigation)

SLAM laser navigation is a natural navigation method that does not require the use of reflective plates. It no longer requires the use of auxiliary navigation signs (QR codes, reflective plates, etc.), but rather uses the natural environment of the work scene, such as columns and walls in the warehouse as positioning references to achieve positioning navigation. Compared with traditional laser navigation, it has the advantage of lower manufacturing costs. According to my understanding, there are also manufacturers (such as SICK) developed for AGV outdoor operation of the laser sensor.


6. Visual navigation

Visual navigation is also a navigation method based on the SLAM algorithm, this navigation method is through the vehicle vision camera to collect the image information of the operating area, through the processing of image information for positioning and navigation. Visual navigation has the advantages of high flexibility, a wide range of applications and low cost, but the current technical maturity in general, the use of vehicle vision systems to quickly and accurately achieve road sign recognition this technology is still in the bottleneck stage.


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